Encryption

04 April 2017, 10:45, Track 1

Session chair: Di Ma, University of Michigan, USA

Functional Encryption with Oblivious Helper

Pierre-Alain Dupont, David Pointcheval

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Functional encryption is a nice tool that bridges the gap between usability and privacy when providing access to huge databases: while being encrypted, aggregated information is available with a fine-tuned control by the owner of the database who can specify the functions he allows users to compute on the data. Unfortunately, giving access to several functions might leak too much information on the database, since once the decryption capability is given for a specific function, this is for an unlimited number of ciphertexts. In the particular case of the inner-product, if rows or records of the database contain l fields on which one got l independent inner-product capabilities, one can extract all the individual fields. On the other hand, the major applications that make use of inner-products, such as machine-learning, need to compute many of them. This paper deals with a practical trade-off in order to allow the computation of various inner-products, while still protecting the confidentiality of the data. To this aim, we introduce an oblivious helper, that will be required for any decryption-query, in order to control the leakage of information on the database. It should indeed learn just enough information to guarantee the confidentiality of the database, but without endangering the privacy of the queries.

Mis-operation Resistant Searchable Homomorphic Encryption

Keita Emura, Takuya Hayashi, Noboru Kunihiro, Jun Sakuma

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Let us consider a scenario that a data holder (e.g., a hospital) encrypts a data (e.g., a medical record) which relates a keyword (e.g., a disease name), and sends its ciphertext to a server. We here suppose not only the data but also the keyword should be kept private. A receiver sends a query to the server (e.g., average of body weights of cancer patients). Then, the server performs the homomorphic operation to the ciphertexts of the corresponding medical records, and returns the resultant ciphertext. In this scenario, the server should NOT be allowed to perform the homomorphic operation against ciphertexts associated with different keywords. If such a mis-operation happens, then medical records of different diseases are unexpectedly mixed. However, in the conventional homomorphic encryption, there is no way to prevent such an unexpected homomorphic operation, and this fact may become visible after decrypting a ciphertext, or as the most serious case it might be never detected. To circumvent this problem, in this paper, we propose mis-operation resistant homomorphic encryption, where even if one performs the homomorphic operations against ciphertexts associated with keywords $\omega^\prime$ and $\omega$, where $\omega\neq\omega^\prime$, the evaluation algorithm detects this fact. Moreover, even if one (intentionally or accidentally) performs the homomorphic operations against such ciphertexts, a ciphertext associated with a random keyword is generated, and the decryption algorithm rejects it. So, the receiver can recognize such a mis-operation happens in the evaluation phase. In addition to mis-operation resistance, we additionally adopt secure search functionality for keywords since it is desirable when one would like to delegate homomorphic operations to a third party. So, we call the proposed primitive mis-operation resistant searchable homomorphic encryption (MR-SHE). We also give our implementation result of inner products of encrypted vectors. In the case when both vectors are encrypted, the running time of the receiver is millisecond order for relatively small-dimensional (e.g., $2^6$) vectors. In the case when one vector is encrypted, the running time of the receiver is approximately 5 msec even for relatively high-dimensional (e.g., $2^{13}$) vectors.

A Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-based Encryption Scheme With Optimized Ciphertext Size And Fast Decryption

Qutaibah M. Malluhi, Abdullatif Shikfa, Viet Cuong Trinh

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We address the problem of ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption with fine access control, a cryptographic primitive which has many concrete application scenarios such as Pay-TV, e-Health, Cloud Storage and so on. In this context we improve on previous LSSS based techniques by building on previous work of Hohenberger and Waters at PKC’13 and proposing a construction that achi- eves ciphertext size linear in the minimum between the size of the boolean access formula and the number of its clauses. Our construction also supports fast decryption. We also propose two interesting extensions: the first one aims at reducing storage and computation at the user side and is useful in the context of lightweight devices or devices using a cloud operator. The second proposes the use of multiple authorities to mitigate key escrow by the authority.

On the Robustness of RSA-OAEP Encryption and RSA-PSS Signatures Against (Malicious) Randomness Failures

Jacob Schuldt, Kazumasa Shinagawa

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It has recently become apparent that both accidental and maliciously caused randomness failures pose a real and serious threat to the security of cryptographic primitives, and in response, researchers have begone the development of primitives that provide robustness against these. In this paper, however, we focus on standardized, widely available primitives. Specifically, we analyze the RSA-OAEP encryption scheme and RSA-PSS signature schemes, specified in PKCS\#1, using the related randomness security notion introduced by Paterson et al. (PKC 2014) and its extension to signature schemes. We show that, under the RSA and ${\sf \Phi}$-hiding assumptions, RSA-OAEP encryption is related randomness secure for a large class of related randomness functions in the random oracle model, as long as the recipient is honest, and remains secure even when additionally considering malicious recipients, as long as the related randomness functions does not allow the malicious recipients to efficiently compute the randomness used for the honest recipient. We furthermore show that, under the RSA assumption, the RSA-PSS signature scheme is secure for any class of related randomness functions, although with a non-tight security reduction. However, under additional, albeit somewhat restrictive assumptions on the related randomness functions and the adversary, a tight reduction can be recovered. Our results provides some reassurance regarding the use of RSA-OAEP and RSA-PSS in environments where randomness failures might be a concern. Lastly, we note that, unlike RSA-OAEP and RSA-PSS, several other schemes, including RSA-KEM, part of ISO 18033-2, and DHIES, part of IEEE P1363a, are not secure under simple repeated randomness attacks.